So what is driving nature-based innovations? While with the help of the nature-based innovation system framework, we'll explore the different driving forces behind the emergence of nature-based solutions. This framework, categorizes innovation drivers in eight dimensions: agency, discourse and vision, policies, governance structures, collaborative arrangements, learning, resources, and place-based factors. Now, let us see what the different dimensions entitle. Agency refers to the capacity for actions that individuals and organizations take to influence nature-based innovation pathways. Driven by agents of change, organizations may demonstrate leadership and power in the development and uptake of nature-based innovations. Best-practice interventions, particular planning processes, and the introduction of new forms of environmental regulations, can exemplify institutional commitments to sustainability. While agency plays a key role at individual and group level, collective verb views do so at the level of society. Discourses and visions of urban sustainability like eco-city, green city or innovative city, often translate into norms of action which in turn then build up a social momentum for change. Discourses and visions also interact with different policies, like strategic plans, legislation, and regulations. It can be used to directly and indirectly steer sustainable practices: stewardship, financing, and public engagement, enhancing nature-based solutions. Governance structures determine nature-based innovation pathways, as the actors involved and the distribution of power, and responsibilities across stakeholders strongly influence the degree to which these actors have a strategy overview, available budget, and capacity for collaboration. They will also influence the institutional capabilities for collaboration and learning in this domain. Two factors that are essential to overcoming challenges associated with fragmentation across case and between sectors. Collaboration takes place in professional networks and partnerships among different stakeholders. But collaboration also refers to public participation, the engagement of citizens which is becoming an increasingly dominant urban practice. The empowerment of civil society is particularly important in the implementation phase of nature-based solutions, especially in cities with high levels of private land ownership. Citizen engagement has a great potential to improve the public support of sustainability interventions and ultimately to leverage sustainability transformations. Learning is another key dimension that supports capacity building for nature-based urban development. Education and training can improve understanding of the multiple benefits of nature-based solutions among different stakeholders. Research and evaluation can improve and refine nature-based interventions, while experimentation can contribute to new forms of governance approaches. Another critical driver for nature-based innovations is resources. As nature-based solutions need to be adapted to socio-ecological contexts, knowledge about local conditions and how they interact with nature-based solutions is crucial. Diverse financial resources and sound financial planning are essential to the success of nature-based innovation. Today, institutionalized spending, grant programs, and subsidies are prominent financing instruments for nature-based solutions. The development of technologies is another important condition for some types of nature-based solutions like green roofs. In addition, place-based factors also strongly influenced the availability and scope of nature in cities as well as the functioning of nature-based innovations. The built environment influences, for instance the diffusion of green roofs. As cities with large areas of low raise development are more suitable for extensive green roofs, given easier rooftop accessibility and less space occupied by building infrastructure. Natural processes like plant productivity, is influenced by local soil and climatic conditions which are important considerations when planning green infrastructure. Societal processes similarly influence the availability and scope of nature in cities. Urbanization may lead to environmental degradation, yet could also prompt demand for nature-based innovations by simulating processes of economic transformation and urban revitalization. Finally, local cultural frames of reference shaped by historical and geographical processes also influence the diffusion of nature-base innovations, like consumption habits, business orientation, levels of trust, attitudes to co-production, artistic activities or aesthetic preferences. All work in the nature ration project shows evidence of successful nature-based solutions. But despite attracting increasing interest, the use of nature-based solutions remains marginal, fragmented, and highly uneven within and between cities. Traditional solutions continue to dominate urban development. Therefore, is now especially important to identify the combination of measures, governance approaches, financial arrangements, and underlying driving forces that supports successful innovation pathways for nature-based solutions.