[SOUND] Welcome back. Let's review, quickly, the territory we've covered in our first sessions together. We started with an overview and definition of the design thinking process. We looked at four questions, what is, what if, what wows, and what works that allow us to generate and experiment with ideas. And we talked about the specific kinds of problems that design thinking is well suited to. In that first session, we illustrated the design thinking in action, by telling the story of one organization, The Good Kitchen, and how they addressed the problem of poor nutrition in the elderly through the redesign of a meal delivery service. They used a design thinking approach that allowed them to ask a better question, develop a deeper understanding of stakeholder needs, involve a broad group of stakeholders in co-creating new solutions, and then test these to make sure they were getting them right. But design thinking, we argued, is about more than just process and tools. And in session two, we stepped away from the process to look at the role of the designer and his or her mindset. Maybe you remember the story of George and Geoff. We looked at how a mindset that avoided mistakes and focused on using objective data and analysis had helped George to succeed in a stable environment, but it was leading him towards failure in an unstable one. We contrasted this with the experience of Geoff, whose mindset focused on learning, understanding people as humans, and conducting small experiments instead of doing analysis that prepared him to see and act on opportunities much more successfully than Geoff in an unstable environment. Then, in session three, we returned to process and focused on idea generation as an activity, and we looked in depth at the first two questions, what is, and what if. We met Chris Carter, an entrepreneur who saw an area of opportunity he wanted to explore using social networking to help people adopt healthier lifestyles. We looked at how Chris and the team at Essential Design used interviewing, journaling, and creative projection techniques to get inside the heads of people, helping them to create a set of personas that allowed them to generate a host of creative ideas that met the different needs of the different stakeholders. And then we move from idea generation to testing, and explored the last two questions, what wows, and what works. Through the story of IBM's partnership with GPJ to redesign their trade show experience, we looked at how their front end research into human interaction and learning translated into a series of prototypes that came together in a learning launch conducted at the Sibos trade show in Amsterdam. And so we've looked at a variety of different organizations, very different. A local municipality, a startup, and a major corporation, each of whom use design thinking to solve very different kinds of problems. And, you know what? There was not a sign of needing Moses and his miracles at any point. What makes these stories so inspiring to me, is not the presence of miracle making, but in fact, it's absence. The outcomes that our design thinkers produce may have been unexpected, maybe even some of them magical. But, the way they produced them was not. In each case we can follow the process they took and the tools they used to get there. No parting of the waters or miracles of any kind required, just some disciplined bridge building. So, as we followed this process through our three stories, it may have looked easy, but I guarantee you it was not.