[MUSIC] Welcome back, in the last lesson we talked about grape varietals. In this lesson, we're going to talk specifically about Bordeaux reds and whites. Most wines made around the world are named for the grape that is used either exclusively or at least as the majority component of a blend. Some countries in the Old World, France, for example, has developed a system of naming wines for their place of origin. This French system, emulated by other countries, is known as naming wines by their appellation of origin. In other words, specifically by where the grapes were grown. The rationale behind such a system is that aside from the usual flavors we expect to find when particular grapes are used, there are flavors in the wine specifically associated with the place of origin, their growing site. The term for such flavor expression is known as Terroir, the flavors imparted by the physical and cultural origin of the wine. Such a system exist in Bordeaux where white and red wines are named for their commune or local village and these names are controlled by that locale. This is known as the [FOREIGN] or the AOC. It requires some additional study on our part to discover just which grape varieties are used by each producer and in what proportion and therefore, what aromas these wines might display. The specific grapes that are permitted are controlled by regulations based on many hundreds of years of tradition. If I say that I'm pouring you a red wine from Margot or Pauillac or a white wine from Graves, you can easily research the specific producer to find out their particular blend of grapes. Occasionally, we find wines that are dominated by one grape, but far more commonly the wines are blends. Here are the main grapes permitted in the Bordeaux appellation. I'm sure they will sound quite familiar to you as varietal grapes that we usually encounter under their own names. White wines in the Bordeaux AOC might be a blend of Sauvignon Blanc, which contributes possibly some veggie, herbaceous, grassy and minerally notes. And Semillon, which contributes apple, melon, some white peach and honey to the blend. Red wines made in the AOC Bourdeaux may be a blend of Cabernet. Cabernet Sauvignon, that is, which contributes black fruit notes and spices, peppery, woodsy, herbaceous hints. Merlot, a contributor or red fruit notes, baking spices, jammy odors. Cabernet Franc, which gives us black cherry, berry fruit, and sometimes light herbaceousness. Petit Verdot, which contributes dark color and good tannin structure, and Malbec, which also may contribute tannins and aid in color. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Cabernet Franc are really the big three, while Petit Verdot and Malbec are used in smaller percentages to help the blend by deepening color and augmenting tannins. When we taste these blended wines, if we know what's in the blend we can call to mind the varietal aromas usually associated with these varietals when they are bottled individually. In this lesson we talked about classic Bordeaux white and red wines. In the next lesson, we are going to talk about selecting wines for tasting.