We've introduced several expensive and famous Chinese herbs. In this session, I'm going to introduce three more famous and expensive herbs. First, Zang Hong Hua (Tibetan saffron). About its name, we often make mistakes or it sounds wrong, actually it's not the case. Sometimes we call Zang Hong Hua and sometimes Xi Hong Hua. However, this herb is also known as Fan Hong Hua. There are some misunderstandings about this herb. By its name, it's natural that people assume this herb is grown in Tibet, no matter it's called Xi Hong Hua or Zang Hong Hua. However, it's not grown in Tibet and there is no Hong Hua (saffron) in Tibet. This is the first aspect. Let's move on to the second aspect. By looking at its appearance, You may assume saffron-soaked water should be in red color. But the water with authentic Zang Hong Hua appears orange yellow and has an aromatic smell. Another thing, it's often confused with Cao Hong Hua (Flos Carthami). This is one aspect. In addition, over the recent years, Zang Hong Hua has been extensively used, extensively used, especially for cosmetology in women. However, there are some misunderstandings regarding its use or overuse. In terms of its property, Zang Hong Hua is known as plant gold or red glod. We are now using it as a herb. In ancient time, it was used in daily living, often as perfume and dye. As a result, it can be used as a herb and perfume or dye. Now let's get to know more about this herb. In terms of its origin, it's actually from the coastal area along the Mediterranean Sea, mainly in Greece, Spain, Currently more in Iran. It's called Zang Hong Hua (saffron in Tibet) because of (1) ancient silk road (2) many Tibetan people took 1 or couple of kilograms of this herb from the Middle East like Nepal or Afganistan when they went back from pilgrimage; then transported from Tibet to mainland area. Consequently, people assumed this herb is from Tibet and just name it Zang Hong Hua. However, this herb is not grown in Tibet. Since 1960s or 1970s, we started to cultivate and succeeded in 1980s. Now it's mainly cultivated in Shanghai but not in a large amount. Some people think this herb is neutral; but more believe that it is slightly cold. Overall, it is neutral; even if it's cold but very lightly cold. It mainly enters the heart and liver meridians that associate with blood circulation. The functions of Xi Hong Hua or Zang Hong Hua (whatever it's called), can be summarized into three aspects: (1) circulates blood; 2) cools blood (3) calms the mind So it acts to circulate blood, resolves stasis, cools blood, remove toxins, relieves depression and calms the mind. Its core function lies in regulating blood. This manifests in three ways: (1) regulates the blood phase and can be used to treat blood phase problems. How? (1) it's core function is to circulate blood and resolve stasis. What is the characteristic? It has strong effect and can be used for stagnant blood due to all kinds of reasons. This makes us think that not with strong blood-circulating effect, it's not indicated for everyone, especially for women. It's contraindicated for women with heavy menstruation or uterine bleeding. Let's come back to the cosmetology issue in women: although it is effective, it cannot be used for everyone. This is the first aspect. Secondly, it cools blood and removes toxins and can be used to treat problems due to blood heat or toxic heat, for example, skin problems. It's very effective for macules, urticaria, especially chronic urticaria. Thirdly, it tonifies blood and can be used for blood deficiency in a moderate way. Therefore, this herb is an important option for blood problems, but mainly through circulating blood, especially in gynecology and obstetrics. At present, this herb is extensively used in the treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, tumor, and skin conditions. It's been proven that it can also lower blood fat, reduce body weight; and can therefore be used in hyperlipidemia and obesity. At the same time, it's commonly used in cosmetology, including hairdressing, facial beauty or body shaping. This is about the application of Zang Hong Hua. We say for treatment, You need a doctor's prescription. Please keep in mind that it's used in a small dose, usually no more than 3g. The key point is... it has strong effect and it is very expensive. For cosmetology or healthcare, even if it fits you, you should still use it in a small dose, less than 1g. So much for Zang Hong Hua. Let's be clear: first, it's not grown in Tibet but related to Tibet. However, it's has been sucessfully cultivated in China. Now let's move on to another famous and expensive medicine... Niu Huang (Calculus Bovis) When we mention Niu Huang, you may think of two patent Chinese medicine that you have taken: one is Niu Huang Jie Du Pian (Bovine Bezoar Toxin-Removing Tablet). The other is also very popular called An Gong Niu Huang Wan (Peaceful Palace Bovine Bezoar Pill). Niu Huang is actually bovine gall stones. Since not all cow have gall stones, Niu Huang is very rare and expensive. It is also called Xi Huang or Xi Huang (as in rhinoceros horn). It's also called Chou Bao, meaning ugly but precious. Gall stones are bitter and cold. In terms of classification, there are three categories. Some books categorize it in clearing heat and removing toxins. Undoubtedly, it has remarkable effect in clearing heat and removing toxins, for example, Niu Huang Jie Du Pian has very good effect. Some books categorize it in opening orifices, for example An Gong Niu Huang Wan, one of the three treasures in Chinese medicine that have remarkable effects in refreshing the mind. Some books categorize it in removing wind and stopping convulsions. There are three functions of Niu Huang and these functions are all related to its heat-clearing function. It can clear heat, resolve phlegm and open orifices and can therefore be used for unconsciousness due to phlegm heat. An Gong Niu Huang Wan is very effective for unconsciousness due to stroke, convulsions or epilepsy. Secondly, it can clear heat, reduce fire and remove toxins and can therefore be used for toxic heat accumulation. In Chinese medicine, there are numerous herbs that can clear heat and remove toxins. We do not have to use Niu Huang for general toxic heat except for patent Chinese medicine like Niu Huang Jie Du Pian. However for exuberant toxic heat that doesn't respond to common heat-clearing and toxin-removing herbs, you can either choose Niu Huang or patent Chinese medicine that contains Niu Huang. Thirdly, it can clear heat, remove wind and stop convulsions due to high fever, which is known as extreme heat generating wind in Chinese medicine. Niu Huang works well for this condition as well. Now We can see its strong effect from the names of some patent Chinese medicine. These patent Chinese medicine are often named after Niu Huang, such as Niu Huang Jie Du Pian, An Gong Niu Huang Wan, Niu Huang Qing Xin Wan, Niu Huang Shang Qing Wan, etc. Indicating that Niu Huang has strong effect in clearing heat and removing toxins. So much for Niu Huang. At present, it is unlikely to use Niu Huang alone; it's difficult to buy Niu Huang, especially the natural one. Now let's come to the last herb... Ling Yang Jiao (Cornu Saigae Tataricae, meaning antelope horn). Likewise, this is also from an animal and a very effective one. For animal products, it is salty and cold and enters the liver and heart meridians. I'm going to explain its functions in two aspects. (1) it's a specific medicien for the liver problems, mainly excessive liver problems. In this way, it has three functions. First, it can soothe liver yang and can be used for hyperactivity of liver yang. We've mentioned symptoms due to hyperactivity of liver yang when we introduce Tian Ma (Rhizoma Gastrodiae) such as headache or vertigo. Compared with Tian Ma, Ling Yang Jiao has stronger effect in soothing liver yang and has remarkable effect for vertigo due to hypertension resulting from hyperactivity of liver yang. It alone can work well. Clinically, we often use the powder of Ling Yang Jiao. There are two specifications: 0.3g and 0.6g. The powder of Ling Yang Jiao alone is effective. This is the first aspect. (2) it can be used to treat the liver problems. What kind of liver problems? Hyperactivity of liver fire. For hyperactivity of liver fire, we need to clear liver fire. Ling Yan Jiao has very good effect in clearing liver fire and it can be used to treat hyperactivity of liver fire, such as headache, redness, swelling and pain of the eyes, especially the eye problems. You can either take it orally or use it in eyedrops. So it can clear liver fire and sharpen the eyes. Thirdly It can be used to stop liver wind and treat convulsions due to internal stirring of liver wind. Of course it doesn't work for all kinds of internal stirring of liver wind. We've mentioned Tian Ma can be used for all kinds of liver wind, but Ling Yang Jiao cannot. Ling Yang Jiao is mainly used for internal stirring of liver wind induced by liver yang and extreme heat generating wind with persistent high fever, including fever, convulsions or spasms. Ling Yang Jiao can clear liver fire/heat, remove wind and stop convulsions or spasms. It can prevent and treat. The second aspect: Ling Yang Jiao can be used to treat heat. Actually we've mentioned this before: it can clear liver fire, it can treat extreme heat generating wind. Here I'd like to mention two more aspects. (1) it clears heat and removes toxins and can therefore be used for toxic heat. It is very effective for febrile, epidemic febrile diseases; it clears heat and removes toxins and can therefore used to treat persistent high fever and macules. (2) secondly, it can clear heat, clear the lung and stop coughing and can therefore be used to treat cough or asthma due to lung heat. Actually Ling Yang Jiao has very good effect in this regard. However, since many herbs have similar functions such as Huang Qin (Radix Scutellariae) or Shi Gao (Gypsum Fibrosum), Ling Yang Jiao is not so commonly used for cough or asthma due to lung heat, but it does have remarkable effect. So for functions of Ling Yang Jiao, I've mainly introduced from two aspects: one for liver problems; one for heat. Until now, We've introduced some famous and expensive Chinese medicine from three aspects: their concept, their application principle. We've also introduced some common famous but not expensive herbs and some expensive and famous herbs. We've introduced a dozens of herbs. I hope you can get an overall understanding about rare and expensive Chinese herbs. So much for this session.