Hello, in last classes, we have discussed Confucianism thought and traditional Chinese medicine. and talked about the benevolence foundation of medical ethics Zhizhonghe ideology of traditional Chinese medicine. and the caring for life in Confucianism. In the following four classes, we'll discuss about the topic of Taoism and traditional Chinese medicine. It mainly focuses on four topics. The first one is relationship between Religious Taoism and Philosophical Taoism The second question is the core thoughts of Taoism culture. Then the third question is the influences of Taoism culture on traditional Chinese medicine. At last, we'll talk a little about the Taoism cultural origin of medication. So in this class we'll talk about the differences and relationship between Religious Taoism and Philosophical Taoism Let's first try to learn what is Philosophical Taoism. Philosophical Taoism is one of the mainstream way of thinking in ancient China. Its representative personage includes well-known Lao Zi and Chuang Tzu. others include Shen Dao, Yang Chu and so on. The core idea of Philosophical Taoism are Tao, inactionďźSelf-so and Nature. It holds the inaction of natural law and imitation of nature. Meanwhile it insists that everything has its opposite. Based on these thoughts, Taoist school put forward inaction and overcoming hardness with softness. These political and military strategies indeed have enormous impacts on Chinese culture. Philosophical Taoism is named after the core thoughts of "Tao" It first appears in the On the Main Idea of Six Schools written by historian Tomasz Smaczny of Western Han Dynasty. It is also called "moralist". In history concerning philosophical Taoism, there were also different schools. Broadly speaking, Philosophical Taoism mainly fall into three, that is, the philosophy of Lao-Chuang,the philosophy of Huang-Lao and the philosophy of Yang Chu, among which the philosophy of Lao-Chuang is based on ultimate truth. It tends toward philosophy, the companion of which is nature, the teacher of which is universe, the base of which is inaction. It insists on Tao, liberty and inaction. so it has become the spiritual home of literati to get away from cruel political reality. Of course, to people who are individuals of nourishing of life, how to realize self-health to get away from some disputes. It also works well. Representatives are Lao Zi and Zhuangzi, etc. Philosophy of Huang-Lao is based on nonentity and its use is cause and effect. It collects the merit of Confucianism and Mohists and gathers the main points of principles. Therefore it insists on compatibility, Tao, rule by law and recovery. so judging from this point, it is closely related to politics. That's why it always become the rescue of political policies after several big wars. So you can see that it is closely related to the heyday of ancient China. The representatives are Shen Dao, Tian Pian, Huan Yuan and so on. While the philosophy of Yang-Zhu insists on the shelter from harm,self-benefit ans stress on life. It opposes that the other does harm to the self. an also opposes self invades the other. It belongs to a branch of Philosophical Taoism. The representatives are Yang Zhu and Zi Huazi. Since it was not accepted by people after spring and autumn period , it disappeared then. But its thoughts are all inherited by the later Philosophical Taoism. So later when we look at the thoughts of Philosophical thoughts, you'll see the concept of seek for life. Then how about the origin of philosophical Taoism? There are some records in Yiwen Zhi in Han Shu. Books of Philosophical Taoism include Four Classics by Huangdi,Yiyin, Taigong, Xinjia, Guanzi and so on. What does this suggest? The thoughts of philosophical Taoism is related to politicians such as Haungdi, Yiyin and Jiang Taigong. It is closely related to their political thoughts, which proves its legitimate status. Unlike that Confucian culture originated from Zhou culture, the scholars of Phylosophical Taosim are mostly from Song, Chu, Qin and Qi, Which suggest that the thoughts of philosophical Taoism is more closely related to Yinshang culture. What is the symbol of the establishment of Philosophical Taoism? It is the tao te ching written by Lao Zi at the end of Spring and Autumn period. Philosophical Taoism flourished in the warring states period. Except the philosophy of Lao-Chuang, both the philosophy of Yang-Zhu and Huang-Lao have their good days. Among them, the philosophy of Huang-Lao is the most flourishing one. The thoughts of Huang-Lao di not only become the thoughts of managing state affairs in Tian and Qi, It also had great influences on the thoughts of many schools during a hundred schools of thought contend. And in Chu and Qin ruled by Lv Buwei, it also had its effects. The Annals of Lv Buwei which was written by Lv Buwei is based on the thoughts of Philosophical Taoism. So at the end of warring state period, only the philosophy of Huang-Lao was flourishing. After Qin united six states, Qin Shihuang did not choose the philosophy of Taoism, but Legalists. Moreover, he burnt books and burned the literati in pits. So a hundred of schools of thoughts were heavily hit by it. inlcuding the philosophy of Taoism. But it is interesting that at the beginning of Han Dynasty, the rulers reflected upon the ruling thoughts of Qin, and finally chose the philosophy of Taoism as the thoughts of ruling the country. And the appearance of Rule of Wen and Jing, which is related to this thought trend. But it didn't last long. After Emperor Hanwu was in power, He took Dong Zhongshu's suggestion of advocating Confucianism. At that time, the development of philosophical Taoism was hindered again. Of course there were people said that because Taoist alchemy couldn't give Emperor of Hanwu immortality, he got extremely angry and drove Taoists out of palace and left them alone. At last it was very probable that Confucianism gained the upper hand. Of course there was this story. When Wei Jin South and North dynasties began, the atmosphere on the chat of myth became popular. At that time, philosophical Taoism thoughts came back to life. but this time the emphasis is not Huang-Lao, but the reinterpretation of Lao-Chuang. The influential Wei jin metaphysics also took shape. Afterwards Lao-Chuang became the legitimate philosophical Taoism and last until today. The thoughts of philosophical Taoism was ever connected with Buddhism, whereby Chinese Buddhism namely Zen was formed. To the establishment of Lixue in Song and Ming as well as Wang Yangming's philosophy Philosophical Taoism had great effects on it. So you can not look upon philosophical Taoism simply as Taoism. In fact, it has many different aspects. In late Qing Dynasty, with the impact of western culture, the ruling order of Confucianism was heavily hit. but things are different with philosophical Taoism. It has some similarities with some western thoughts such as liberty and democracy. Because it lay great emphasis on nature, personality and personal liberty, it was given relative importance. Later Dong Guangbi put forward the concept of the contemporary new Taoist, and got some response in academia. Then there were the theory of Weidao, Daoshang, the liberty of Tiandao. the theory of Zihua and some other theories. What we have discussed about is the general picture of philosophical Taoism. So you can see that philosophical Taoism has a pretty long history. It is the most ancient school of philosophy. and divided into different aspects, for instance, political-related the atmosphere on the chat of myths and individualism. It is also related to individualized ideas. Next, let's see what religious Taoism is. In most cases, many people can't distinguish between philosophical Taoism and religious Taoism. Even some books can't tell them apart. Then what is religious Taoism? Some people say that it is a native-born religion in China when we say that Buddhism is foreign. but you can't understand Confucianism as a religious concept. Thereofore religious Taoism is the only native-born religion in China That's why it is so important. Some people think that it is the source of Eastern science and wisdom. Similarly, it put much emphasis on life. So it is closely related to traditional Chinese medicine. It is recorded that religious Taoism originated when the world was created by Pan Gu. if this is true, religious Taoism is very ancient. Of course this is the statement of Taoist Scriptures. Then when did it begin? Huangdi asked his way in Kongdong and made pod and alchemy. It was spread when Lao Zi preached under a pillar and went out of Hangu. Also some people say that when Lao Zi got old, he rode a black ox and got missing. it is very probable that people made it up to build the immortal image of Lao Zi. But this is when it was developed. If take Huangdi as the beginning of an era, it has 4700-year-old history. What on earth is religious Taoism? Its highest faith is Tao. Its core content is immortal faith. The most typical feature of it is alchemy and magic. when we mentioned philosophical Taoism before, there is no alchemy and magic. It is a kind of thoughts and idea. So this is an obvious symbol of religious Taoism. It aims at being immortal. Both Qin Shi Huang and Emperor Han Wu wish that they could be immortal. So in a particular period of history, religious Taoism has its effects. But later people found that it was unrealistic. So religious Taoism was also adjusting its goal. So in the early period, its ultimate goal is immortality. It seeks harmony of nature, peace of country, stable of society and happiness of family. It belives in that those who do kind things and follow Tao can be happy and immortal. From this aspect, religious Taoism indeed reflects the spiritual life and faith of Chinese people. Actually it is quite interesting. The academic idea, politics, economy and military strategies of China were greatly influenced by religious Taoism. Moreover, the personalities, moral principles and thinking modes of Chinese people. were also greatly affected by it. I remember that Lu Xun once said that the root of China is religious Taoism. After he said it, he did not actually separate religious Taoism and philosophical Taoism totally. Or course we don't need to discuss too much about it. As for the establishment of religious Taoism, Except that Taoist Scriptures declared that it began when Pan Gu created the world. In fact,to be more accurate, there are other stories as follows, the first one is the School of Maoshan In 145BC, namely the fifth year of Emperor Jing of East Han, the three brothers whose family name were Mao in Shanxi, Mao Ying, Mao Gu and Mao Zhong gathered herbs, practised alchemy and saved people's lives. Please pay attention that the first three brothers of the School of Mao Shan gathered herbs, practised alchemy and saved people's lives. You should remember it, because the later development of religious Taoism is closely related to it. People felt grateful for what the three brothers did, then changed the name of the mountain into Mao Shan. The three brothers of Mao were honoured as the founder of the school of Mao Shan. The three brothers became immortal in Mao Shan. It is easy to notice that at first religious Taoism was indeed closely related to alchemy and herbs. The second story of the origin of religious Taoism is five-dou-grain Taoism. What does five-dou-grain Taoism mean? It talked about Zhang Daoling. Who is Zhang Daoling? As a matter of fact, he had a deep background. He was actually closely related to royal government. He used to be a minister who had relationship with Han Dynasty. This person was pretty clever. He read a lot since he was young. At that time, government also wanted him to serve for them, but he didn't. He had his own pursuit. It was said that he called himself Laojun in Heming Shan in today's Sichuan province and established religious Taoism. The warlord Zhanglu at the end of Han Dynasty also claimed so to set up the glory of his family and lay the foundation of his political career. It was also said that he did establish religious Taoism in Heming Shan and named himself Taoist Master. So this is the story. some people said that it was Zhang Xiu who was killed by Zhang Ly that established five-dou-grain Taoism, so it was called Zhang Taoist Master. Five-dou-grain Taoism honoured Lao Zi as the ancestor. advocated The Tao Te Ching as the basic classics and looked for orthodox from it. Another one is Taiping Taoism. In the Period of Emperor Ling, Zhang Jiao,a believer of Huang-Lao Taoism established Taiping Taoism, which honoured Scripture of the great peace as the classic. It also had some relations with medicine. When plague was epidemic, water therapy and spell were used to treat patients. Of course we know that water therapy and spell can't cure diseases. But in order to build his image, he would certainly use some medical knowledge so that it seemed to work. But later because of sharp class conflicts, Zhang Jiao launched the Yellow Turban Uprising in 184. because of the ruler's crackdown,it failed. Taiping Taoism then disappeared. Tang Dynasty honoured Lao Zi as the ancestor. We know that in Tang Dynasty, the emperor's family name is Li. What is the family name of Lao Zi? His original family name is was also Li. his name was Li Er. After that he honoured Lao Zi as ancestors to find a way for him to rule the country He also honored religious Taoism as the state religion. So in Tang Dynasty, there were many famous Taoists Because the government attaches great importance to it. The emperor said that he was closely related to Lao Zi and he was a descendant of Lao Zi. So the government supported Taoism very much. then the Taoist medicine became the era characteristic. Representatives including Wang Bing and Sun Simiao. Many famous doctors were Taoists. So when Wang Bing made notes of Huangdi Neijing, Religious Taoist thoughts were penetrated into it by him. The Huangdi Neijing, we talked about before, It was the first Chinese medicine theoretical book. Because it went missing when it was noted later after it was written, After Wang bing found the remaining materials, he made notes of the book. he made some supplement for those can't be found. So his thought penetrated in these notes. And Sun Simiao, I also mentioned just now, was also a famous doctor in the Tang Dynasty He was also a Taoist. He connected the caring for life in Taoism with medical science together. In addition, there were also Taoist like XuanYing, li and Wang Xuan view and so on. They developed the religious Taoism theories. Sitting in Oblivion and Heavenly Hermit by Sima Chengzhen who is the ancestor of the school of Mao Shan put forward the methods of becoming immortals and became the pioneer of internal alchemy. It is also closely related to People's health. On the other hand, Zhong Liquan and Lv Dongbing,ancestors of Quanzhen Taoism, Taoist theory of Zhong-Lv contributed to the formation of internal alchemy theory. In Northern Song Dynasty, the rulers inherited the policy of advocating religious Taoism in Tang Dynasty. So in Northern Song Dynasty, Religious Taoism also had huge impacts. The most influential is Mao Shan and Long Hushan. Mao Shan Taoism which is full of great Taoists are the most powerful one. and internal alchemy was also widely spread and became popular. Especially Wuzhen Pian which was written by Zhang Borui, a Taoist of Quanzhen, it is the classic of transition in history. Let's look at the subsequent differentiation and confluence of religious Taoism. At the 12th century, Some Han people in the Central Plains are unwilling to cooperate with the rulers of Jin Dynasty. They established new Taoism. Wang Chongyang established Quanzhen Taoism. He inherited the internal alchemy thoughts of Zhong and Lv. and "three religions in one", Full Jing, Qi Shen and unselfish are its characteristics. In Sourthen Song Dynasty, Bai Yuchan developed internal alchemy, and established the South-school of inner alchemy which believes in cultivating life before essence and never separate life from essence. In the early period of Yuan Dynasty, the ancestor of Quanzhen Longmen, Qiu Chuji Zhenren, travelled 35000 miles During his journey, he met Genghis Khan. Of course there were some hearsay. Later Genghis Khan respected him very much. and honoured him as the national teacher of the state who took charge of all the religious Taoism in China. This laid a solid foundation for the development of Quanzhen Taoism. After Yuan Dynasty united China, Quanzhen Taoism went to southern China to spread its faith, then communicated on alchemy with South-school of inner alchemy. These two schools have the same theoretical source of internal alchemy. So later in the period of Emperor Yuanhui, they were combined into one. In 1304, Emperor Yuancheng ordered Zhang Yucai as the head of Celestial Taoism, which stood for the formation of Celestial Taoism. This is the process. But later how did it decline? After Qing Dynasty took power, it didn't accept religious Taoism. Instead, it accepted Buddhism. We all know that the first emperor of Qing Dynasty who was not willing to be the emperor was also a believer of Buddhism. Buddhism became the national religion, so it took protective measures on religious Taoism. After the Opium War, China was so weak that Western thoughts invaded. Religious Taoism was also greatly influenced by it. At that time, Wang Changyue, the ancestor of Quanzhen Longmen Taoism, proposed the thoughts of " being cautious with actions", which had some good effects and set up "Longmen Zhongxing". At that time ,Quanzhen Taoism succeeded in recovering its flourish to some degree. After the establishment of People's Republic of China, the title of Zhengyi Zhenren and financial support were cancelled. He was no long supported by the government. Especially New Culture Movement attacked religious Taoism badly. Not only Religious Taoism but also Confucianism was under attack. Until 1928, national government issued the criteria for shrines to be abolished or exist, which greatly hit the faith of the immortal again. because of the abolishment of superstition. It is the same with new China. Superstition needs to be removed and thoughts need to be liberated. Therefore belif in immortality was considered superstitious. Of course there was different explanation for it. Then the decline of religious Taoism became heavier and heavier. Although some people identify religious Taoism with Philosophical Taoism in history, based on our analysis, they are different from each other, and have some links. At last, I want to make a brief summary of the relationship between Religious Taoism and philosophical Taosim. What do religious Taoism and philosophical Taoism have in common? Both of them believe in Lao Zi. Religious Taoism honours Lao Zi as the supreme God of Taoism. This is undoubted. Moreover,Daodejing and Zhuangzi is not only the classics of religious Taoism, but also the faith of it. This is what they have in common. but the difference is that religious Taoism appeal to the emotion or reason. In fact, it is a philosophical school which expounds on philosophy such as Tao of nature, right? But religious Taoism is different because it appeals to emotion and feelings of human beings. It talked about the concept of caring for life. There was a saying that a living mouse is better than a dead emperor. A living mouse is better than a dead emperor. What does this mean? Being alive is the highest thought. So people must be alive. It is a concept of emphasis on life. So finally it produced many ways to protecting life including alchemy or other internal alchemy to keep healthy. At this point, it has the same idea with traditional Chinese medicine. Traditional CHinese medicine also aims at saving people's lives and help people keep healthy. They found something in common. From this perspective, it had great influences on traditional Chinese medicine later. Religious Taoism is a type of philosophical thoughts of reason. But this philosophical thoughts actually At first many people thought that it was related to the thoughts of governing a state, but later it was applied to the field of keeping healthy. This is a quite interesting thing. So this is all of today's class. Next class we'll summarize the similarities of religious Taoism and philosophical Taoism, then talked about the core thoughts of Taoism culture.