Good to see you, guys. Last time we talked about the conceptions and classifications of organs and viscera. And this time, we will focus on theory of organs and viscera, more accurately put as viscera-state theory, is a further understanding, based on the conception of viscera and their functions Of the relationship between organs, intestines and other major organs. And their respective physiological functions and pathological relations. Yin-yang and the five-elements theories will be used in the analysis of their relations It sounds complicated. and rightfully so. The viscera theory is rather complicated and hard to grasp in Chinese Medicine. Today we are going to see the viscera theory from a macroscopic view. It is introductory. We will mainly focus on the following problems. First the difference between "viscera-state" and viscera; Second, the origin of viscera-state theory Third, viscera-state theory and the theory of Yin-yang and the five-elements Then, we will talk about the five systems of viscera-state theory Finally, we will introduce the determination of visceral functions We have a doubt: what are the differences between viscera and viscera state? We have already talked about the concept of viscera So everybody has some basic knowledge about them. Do you still remember the viscera? The five internal organs: liver, heart, spleen, lung and kidney The six hollow organs: gallbladder, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, bladder and sanjiao Very good. "Zang",namely internal organs, "Xiang", means the external manifestations of the visceral functions and their pathological changes Therefore, Zangxiang theory, namely viscera-state theory, is the study of the interrelationship of Viscera’s physiological functions and pathological changes The word “Zangxiang” first appeared in Su Wen: Six Zangxiang Theories So the Zangxiang theory can actually date back to the time between Spring and Autumn and the Western Han Dynasty when the book The Internal Canon of Medicine appeared. Later, works such as Classic on Medical Problems ( Nan Jing ) enriched Zangxiang’s content Especially Sun Simiao at Tang Dynasty, in his Qian Jin Prescriptions He wrote about the weight, size, length, width and volume of the visceral organs And counted the five internal organs, five times(spring, summer, long summer, autumn and winter) five directions (east, south, middle, west and north) And five body constituents (tendon, vessel, muscle, hair and skin, bone) into the category of the five elements And gradually the five bodily systems appeared which we shall talk about it later. From these we know that there is a natural connection between organs and the nature. Mister, you just mentioned that in Tang Dynasty the connections between organs and the five elements were already pointed out. Could you be more specific about their relations? Do you remember when we talked about the five-element theory I showed you a picture? Where you can already see the relations between viscera, other organs And many natural phenomena. Last, let’s conclude it with the picture. First we review the picture and see how many corresponding relations you can find out? Liver and gallbladder belong to wood; heart and small intestine belong to fire; spleen and stomach belong to earth; Lung and large intestine belong to gold and kidney and bladder belong to water. Very good. Chinese Medicine believes there are corresponding relations between internal organs and hollow organs. Their relations are founded upon the attributes of the five elements For example, the relations between liver and gallbladder, heart and small intestine, spleen and stomach, lung and large intestine and kidney and bladder So we have a Chinese proverb "gan dan xiang zhao"(sincere treatment between each other) in Chinese culture to mean a close relationship between two persons. Is Zangfu theory is related to Yin-yang? Precise memory. Indeed, Zangfu theory is not only related with the five-elements, but also Yin-yang. We know that as for human body, the exterior is Yang, while the interior is Yin. Materials belong to Yin, and functions to Yang. Apply Yin when Yang pervades the body. Yin is still while Yang is more volatile. So based on the respective attributes of internal organs and hollow organs, generally we consider liver, heart, spleen, lung and kidney belong to Yin, while gallbladder, small intestine, stomach, large intestine and bladder belong to Yang. And because of their corresponding relations with the five elements, so we consider that these said five pairs are each other’s inside and outside. Namely, liver and gallbladder are each other’s inside and outside, the relation is like heart and small intestine, spleen and stomach, lung and large intestine, kidney and bladder. But does that mean each member of these pairs have similar functions? Not necessarily. But if any pathological change happens, they tend to show certain kind of correlation. For example, if spleen is not functioning properly, anorexia may occur. Heart-fire can also move downward into small intestine, that can lead to pathological symptoms in both heart and small intestine. I have another question: there are mutual promotion and restrictionin the five elements, If human viscera and organs are put into that system, Does that mean the five internal organs, the five hollow organs and other organs also have the kind of relations? It is a complicate question to discuss And it a need long-time clinical observation and experience To understand their physiological and pathological changes Some of them even require deep scientific research Those who are interested can choose relevant professional books to read Or go to professional courses in Medical schools to have a deeper understanding. So how could we determine the functions of viscera? It puzzles many but is actually very simple It is concluded mainly through different clinically physiological and pathological symptoms and changes after the healing process is due For example Who a person’s spleen is function properly, then he should have normal appetite and regular bower movement But if his spleen functions weakly, then digestive and absorptive functions will weaker, such problems as abdominal abstention and loose stool may appear, coupled with dizziness, the symptom of the lack of qi-blood If one apply Bolus for Regulating Middle Energizer, mainly composed of Ginseng, Rhizoma Zingiberis, Bighead Atractylodes Rhizome and prepared Radix Glycyrrhizae to cure the disease symptoms will be ameliorated or even healed. So, spleen is closely related with transportation and transformation, namely the absorptive and digestive functions. Nowadays many people when they are experiencing diarrhea, he would take some antibiotics. Then does than mean antibiotics are capable of dealing with the symptoms caused by the insufficiency of spleen? This is a good question, and a very important one. In daily lives, many people have developed a kind of antibiotics-dependency syndrome. That how I call this phenomenon. If you are experiencing flu, headache, toothache and diarrhea and so on. It is not advisable to take antibiotics. The use of antibiotics is limited to those whose cells have been infected, which should show itself in blood test Otherwise, you will only end up worsening the situation. In fact, the insufficiency of the spleen and diarrhea should not be treated with antibiotics Why not? Because many modern research have proved the insufficiency of the spleen is the result of intestinal flora imbalance And the use of antibiotics will aggravate the imbalance Instead of curing it, it will aggravate the symptoms. Oh Yes, it is quite practical to learn some Chinese medicine Of course, due to time limitation, we can not discuss more examples. But if you study this way, you can learn more by yourself. That is all for today, next we will talk about the conception and function of main and collateral channels.