Last class we talked about the bud of traditional Chinese medicine before the spring and autumn period from the perspective of three legend. This class we focus more on the foundation of medicine theory Spring and autumn period to the Qin and Han dynasties is a very important period in Chinese history It is a period from slavery to the feudal system of the social transition and the first emancipation of mind in the history of civilization Economic and political culture in the spring and autumn warring states period is very rich and academic thoughts have become increasingly active the hundred argue liberation movement and Confucianism, the yin-yang school of Taoism later Make the medicine form Especially the experience accumulation of medicine and the thought of Yin and Yang the mutual penetration of the view of nature and the philosophy of dialectical thought led to high development of medicine from experience medicine to medical science theory brought the first representative works Huangdi Neijing and the first pharmacology monograph "Shennong Bencao Jing" (Divine Farmer's Materia Medica) in the medical history With the apperance of words and ancient text books Early literature such as "three grave", "five" "eight line" "nine hills" Zuo Zhuan, the year of 12 recorded a history of ChuLing praising Zuoshi Yixiang, a civil servant As they are good books, people are in favor of reading "three graves", "five classics" "eight lines" "nine hills". Zuoshi Yixiang in Chu State is well known for the understanding of the ancient classics. Unfortunately, there are no contents and forms of these ancient classics in Zuo Zhuan. Some people hold that "three graves" includes Huangdi Neijing, Fu xi Guajing and "Shennong Bencao Jing" (Divine Farmer's Materia Medica) That is to say, these medical works are well known in earlier times and played significant roles in "three graves". which indicates that the ancients are eager for medico-knowledge. Let’s first talk about Huangdi Neijing briefly. Although some people think that it is an ancient book in Xian xia period. But the time when the book came into being and its real author is still a riddle unsettled. According to research, this book is completed from 77 A.D.to 26A.D. because this book was not found in silk manuscripts, which was dug from Han dynasty tombs in western suburbs of Changsha, China. While what more important is the Historical Records written by Sima Qian is completed from about 104.BC to 90.BC.(Western Han Dynasty) There is nothing relative to Huangdi Neijing in this important book. But Han Shu written by Liu Xiang and his father has clearly recorded the information about Huangdi Neijing. But from the style of writing in this book, it is not written by only one people at one time It is more likely to be the medical thesis gradually appeared from the Spring and Autumn period to Qin and Han dynasty And then they are fathered to form the collected works. However, Yellow Emperor was more than 2000 years earlier than this book, so he has nothing to do with this book. It was only a book which is named after Yellow Emperor. This book is not only a medical work, in fact, its contents are widespread including philosophical thinking, astronomy and geography, weather, nourishing of life and the warding off of illness. It does not only tell the specific treatment, but also some medical truth Of course, including some practical methods Such as Miraculous Pivot which includes lots of acupuncture, some of which are specific Summarizing the perceived data of body structure, such as the ration of gullet and intestinal is 1:35. This ratio is close to 1:37 discovered in modern times Which indicates the ratio is rather accurate at that time. Another work in "three graves" is "Shennong Bencao Jing" (Divine Farmer's Materia Medica) The time when this book was completed is unclear. Some people hold that it was in Qin and Han dynasty, at least not later than the Eastern Han Dynasty. There are 365 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine in this book which is divided into three classes according to toxicity Top grade medicines like ginseng and liquorice which are safe and non-poisonous and have the function of life cultivation and health preservation. While medium-grade drug like Scutellaria baicalensis, Angelica sinensis and ephedra and so on have slight toxicity and can be used for warding off the illness. Low-grade drugs like rheum officinale, monkshood and selfheal and so on have strong toxicity, which can not be used. The theories of four natures of drugs and the five flavours are also founded in this book which also reflects some chemical knowledge Secondly, the method of dosimetry points out which drugs can be used singly or not setting up the theory of “Qi Qing He He” and the principle of “Qun Chen Zuo Shi” between drugs summarizing the basic dosage forms like pill, medicinal powder, decoction, liquor and grease and so on. Thirdly, pharmacy put up with the thought of using drugs in a discriminate way. The drugs discussed in the book could apply to more than 170 kinds of illness and have specific regulations on dosage and time and so on. Then we come to see the third work---treatise on febrile and miscellaneous diseases This is the first practical clinical medical work in our country. This book is written by Zhang zhongjing of the late eastern Han dynasty who summarized the medico-knowledge and wrote according to his own clinical experience This book set texture, method,power and drug at an organic whole Especially 113 kinds of prescription in it which are still clinical medicines now This book was completed from about 200.A.D. To 210.A.D. Thus, the author Zhang Zhongjing is known as "the grandfather of prescription" There is another one book Nanjing whose original name is a classic on medical problems It was said that it was written by Qin and Yue people “Nan” means question “Jing” means Huangdi’s Internal Classics The author explains the questions and and doubtful points in Huangdi’s Internal Classics clearly one by one He gives some developing explanation to some questions. This book includes 81 questions Expounding lots of questions like functional form of numbles, diagnostic method, pulse condition, regulating bodily functions and acupuncture therapy and so on one by one. In fact, he supplements the deficiency about visceral, aphygmology and acupuncture and moxibustion in Huangdi’s Internal Classics Unfortunately, this book was lost. The above four works represent the initial shaping of traditional Chinese medicine theories which also settle the basis for the development of medicine. OK. That is all about today.