This course will introduce you to the foundations of modern cryptography, with an eye toward practical applications.

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From the course by University of Maryland, College Park

Cryptography

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This course will introduce you to the foundations of modern cryptography, with an eye toward practical applications.

From the lesson

Week 7

Digital Signatures

- Jonathan KatzProfessor, University of Maryland, and Director, Maryland Cybersecurity Center

Maryland Cybersecurity Center

[SOUND].

Â In this lecture, we'll talk about Public-key infrastructures.

Â Now let's remind ourselves about how Public-key distribution is

Â supposed to work.

Â Both for Public-key encryption and for digital signatures.

Â The discussion here actually is just about the Public-key setting generally.

Â It doesn't matter which of those two primitives we're talking about.

Â So, remember the idea was that one party would generate locally a pair of

Â public and private-keys and then put their public-key in some central repository.

Â Now, we haven't worried very much about names until now, but of course, names and

Â identities are important in practice.

Â And so in practice what might happen is that

Â this entity named Alice would actually insert a record into

Â some public database saying that Alice's public-key is pk.

Â When another user wants to obtain a copy of that other user's Public-key.

Â They can do a look up in the database,

Â to find the Public-key belonging to the entity named Alice.

Â And as we've described it,

Â they will then be able to obtain an authentic copy of Alice's key, pk.

Â Now the problem is that we haven't until now been worried, or thought about

Â the potential for an active attacker, who can try to manipulate this process.

Â And in particular, nothing prevents an attacker from inserting their own

Â public key, pk*, into this public database using the same name, Alice.

Â The database is not doing any kind of checking of the identities of

Â people putting public-keys into that database.

Â And so nothing prevents an attacker from trying to claim somebody else's name.

Â Moreover, the attacker might be able to prevent the communication from

Â Alice from reaching the database.

Â And whether or not it can do that, the other party trying to

Â obtain a copy of Alice's public-key is going to end up being confused.

Â In the best case,

Â they're going to obtain Alice's public-key pk along with an incorrect public key pk*.

Â They won't know which one is the correct one to use.

Â If they try using both, that'll just lead to spurious results.

Â In the worst case, the attacker will be able to prevent Alice's communication from

Â reaching the public repository.

Â And in that case, the other party won't be able to obtain Alice's public-key at all.

Â They won't notice anything has gone wrong, because it will have

Â obtained only a single public-key, corresponding to the identity Alice.

Â And if they then try to use that key, they'll really be communicating with

Â the attacker, rather than with the party with whom they intended to communicate.

Â Another problem is that even if Alice is able to put a copy of her public-key into

Â the central repository, and even if the repository is somehow doing checking to

Â make sure that the party inserting their public-key is who they claim they are.

Â What about the channel between Bob, the other party, and the central repository.

Â If an attacker can block the communication from the repository to Bob, and

Â potentially even inject its own public-key pk* again onto that channel, well then

Â again Bob will be fooled into accepting an incorrect public-key pk* to use for

Â communication with Alice.

Â And once again, the results will be disastrous.

Â Now the idea behind public key infrastructures is to

Â use signatures themselves for secured distribution of public keys.

Â So the idea is to assume in the simplest setting

Â a trusted party with a public key known to everyone.

Â And we'll call this trusted party a CA, which stands for a certificate authority.

Â And we'll denote the public key of this entity by pkCA.

Â So that's the public key belonging to the certificate authority.

Â And the idea is now that Alice, in the previous diagram, could ask the CA

Â to sign the binding between her identity, her name, and her public key.

Â That is the CA should sign some message indicating that Alice's public key is pk.

Â And we can call that signature on the binding between the public key and

Â the identity, a certificate.

Â So here I just displayed some notation where the certificate of the CA on Alice's

Â public key is a signature by the CA that is using the CA's secret key

Â on some sentence that binds together Alice's identity and her public key.

Â Now note that implicit here is the idea that the CA is somehow doing some kind of

Â verification of Alice's identity out of band.

Â If the CA is willing to sign anything that anybody sends it, well then

Â nothing's going to prevent the attacker from sending Alice, pk* just like before.

Â But the idea here is that the CA can be a business, can be a reputable company.

Â And can take the time and develop the resources to be

Â able to verify people's identities before certifying their public keys.

Â Now, once Alice has been able to obtain a certificate on her public key.

Â Then somehow or another if Bob can obtain a copy of that certificate,

Â along with the identity Alice and the public key itself.

Â Then Bob can simply verify the signature to check that everything's okay.

Â That is, Bob can verify that the certificate that is the signature,

Â verifies under the CA's public key the statement that Alice's public key,

Â is indeed pk.

Â And this will prevent an attacker from fooling Bob into

Â accepting an incorrect public key pk*,

Â unless the attacker is somehow able to fool the authority as well.

Â So as we've said,

Â Bob is assured, via this mechanism, that pk is indeed Alice's public key.

Â As long as the CA is trustworthy, meaning that not only is it honest but

Â that it really does properly verify Alice's identity before issuing

Â a certificate for her.

Â There's also the assumption of course that the CA's private key has not been

Â compromised, and that the signature scheme it's using is indeed secure.

Â Now, if you think about it a little bit,

Â you might be worried that there's a chicken and an egg problem here.

Â What do I mean by that?

Â Well, we said that if Bob can get a copy of the CA's public key, then he can

Â leverage that to obtain authentic copies of the public keys of other entities.

Â But how does Bob get the public key of the CA in the first place?

Â Well, there are several possibilities here.

Â I think the most natural possibility is really to imagine that there is one or

Â a few central trusted CAs that we can call roots of trust.

Â And the idea is that it's going to be much easier for

Â Bob to obtain a small number of CA's public keys rather than public keys for

Â arbitrary entities with whom Bob wants to communicate.

Â So the point is, we've kind of narrowed down our focus, so

Â rather than having to worry about secure distribution of millions of public keys.

Â We only have to worry about secure distribution of a small handful of

Â public keys.

Â And then we bootstrap from those,

Â to obtain secure distribution of other public keys.

Â And in fact, this is how things are done in practice.

Â These small set of CA's public keys, can be distributed as part of,

Â for example, an operating system, or a web browser.

Â So if you're able to obtain an authentic copy of the web browser to begin with,

Â then along with that authentic copy of the browser,

Â you might as well download authentic copies of CA's public keys.

Â And as an example, which I'll just demonstrate quickly on the next slide,

Â if you open up your favorite browser.

Â You will find that there are certificates sorry not certificates,

Â there are public keys corresponding to CA's baked into the web browser.

Â So, for example in Firefox if you follow the menus I have indicated here,

Â you can pull up a list of authorities whose

Â public keys are embedded in the Firefox web browser.

Â In fact, it's even more interesting and I, and I would encourage you to do this.

Â You can not only look at the list of authorities,

Â you can also actually see their public keys.

Â You can look at what signature schemes they're using,

Â what kind of security parameter they're using etc.

Â It's quite interesting.

Â And so as an example, if you follow those menus in Firefox,

Â you will get to a window looking something like this.

Â The contents in your window may differ depending on what version you're using and

Â other factors.

Â One thing that's interesting here is if you do this and you actually go look

Â at the Roots of trust contained in your browser, at least in Firefox, you'll see

Â that it's not really the case that there's a small number of CAs public keys.

Â In fact, there are hundreds of CA's public keys that are embedded into

Â the Firefox browser.

Â And what's interesting is that some of the names,

Â some of the companies, may be companies you've heard of.

Â For example, VeriSign which is on the bottom of the screen here,

Â is a very widely known company that acts as a CA.

Â But if you look at some of the other names, they be names that you don't

Â recognize and perhaps, if you had a choice in the matter, wouldn't choose to trust.

Â And it's sort of interesting that this is going on behind the scenes.

Â Most users of web browsers are not aware of what Roots of

Â trust are embedded in their browser.

Â And yet this is really the under pinning of pretty much of all of security on

Â the internet today.

Â Kind of a scary thought actually.

Â But I should mention that if you're concerned about that you can go

Â through the list here and

Â actually delete the public keys as CAs that you, that you don't trust.

Â Now another model for leveraging CAs and leveraging their certificates to learn

Â about public keys of other parties, is something called the Web of trust model.

Â And this is something that originated with the popular PGP email encryption software.

Â And the idea here is simply to obtain public keys from your friends in person.

Â So here the public key distribution problem is quote unquote solved,

Â at least for your immediate friends, because you could obtain authentic copies

Â of their public keys by interacting with them in person.

Â And people actually do this sometimes,

Â they have what's called Key-signing parties,

Â where a bunch of people who are all using the PGP software will get together, and

Â exchange public keys in person.

Â Now, once you've done that,

Â you can in addition obtain certificates on your public key from your friends.

Â And you can do that at, at the key-signing parties as well.

Â So now what I have is I have say 10 or 20 public keys of my friends.

Â And I also have 10 or 20 certificates, signed signatures by my

Â friends vouching for the binding between my identity and my public key.

Â Now you can then boot strap off of that to learn public keys of other people.

Â So, for example, if A knows pkB, and if B at some point in time

Â issued a certificate for C, so this would roughly correspond to the case where A and

Â B are friends, and B and C are separately friends.

Â Well then, A can learn about C's public key,

Â by having C send it's public key, along with the certificate to A.

Â A can verify the certificate because it knows B's public key.

Â And assuming that A finds B trustworthy, right, thinking that under the assumption

Â that B will only issue certificates for people whose public keys he's checked and

Â people who, whose identities he's validated.

Â Then A has some confidence that this really is C's public key.

Â Another idea is to have a Public-key repository.

Â That is, we can augment this Public repository we had way back at

Â the beginning of this lecture, and

Â rather than only storing a public key in a repository, we can store

Â the public key along with any certificates that I have for that public key.

Â And in fact one very well known example of this is the MIT PGP keyserver.

Â You can search for that online and find their webpage.

Â And this is eg, exactly an implementation of this idea.

Â And so you can go there actually and look up somebody's public key and

Â if they're using PGP assuming they have a public key,

Â you will find in this PGP keyserver database.

Â Their public key, along with any, any certificates that are known for

Â that public key.

Â So again, the idea here is that to find Alice's public key,

Â you would search in this database and get all public keys in the database listed for

Â this entity Alice, along with the certificates on those key.

Â And then you simply look for

Â a certificate signed by somebody whose public key you have and whom you trust.

Â Now PKI in theory,

Â as I've described it on the previous three slides, seems pretty workable.

Â In practice, however, it's been a bit more difficult.

Â And it doesn't quite work as well in theory as you

Â might think it does from sorry,

Â it doesn't quite work as well in practice as you might think it does from theory.

Â There are several reasons for

Â this that I'm really not going to go into a great detail about here.

Â This already lies more in the realm of network security than cryptography per se.

Â But I'll just mention one issue is the Proliferation of root CAs that I,

Â that I talked about a few slides ago.

Â Namely the fact that even though you have these root CAs where it's suppose to

Â verify people's sig people's public keys and issue certificates.

Â There are lots and lots of CAs that are trusted in your basic browser software.

Â And in fact if any of those are ever compromised,

Â it would have disastrous con consequences for public key distribution.

Â Another issue is the problem of Revocation.

Â That is dealing with the fact that users might occasionally forget their keys.

Â There might actually have their private keys be compromised by an attacker.

Â And if they find out about such an event,

Â they would like to be able to tell the world that their old set of

Â certificates that vouched for their public key, are no longer valid.

Â And if they've replaced their public key with a different one.

Â This is really a rather thorny issue and

Â there's no great solution even today, although there are work arounds.

Â So we're all ready for

Â bringing everything together that we've learned in the class so far.

Â And in the following lecture, we'll talk about the SSL/TLS protocol,

Â which you use every time you you open up an HTTPS connection over the web.

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