A human resources (HR) department performs human resource management functions, such as finding, hiring, training, and supporting new employees. Its function includes:
Keeping track of employee information
Ensuring the company complies with labor laws and employment standards.
In some companies, HR also administers compensation benefits. HR departments exist to add value to an organization by providing objective guidance to managers and employees on people-related matters. This work is done through a combination of day-to-day support for employees, project work, and long-term strategic planning. A well-managed HR department finds the right people for the job and does what it takes to keep them content and productive.
HR's primary activities include recruitment, administration, compensation and benefits, training and development, and employee relations and performance management. However, they often do much more. The following includes some of the different responsibilities of an HR department.
Recruitment includes all aspects of hiring, from sourcing candidates to onboarding. You may work with hiring managers to determine the needs of a particular role and then find candidates that meet those requirements. You will typically use job boards, career websites, social media, employee referrals, and more to find potential candidates. You may interview HR candidates or alongside department managers to assess whether the applicants are a good fit for the position.
After choosing a candidate, you’ll work with them through the onboarding process. This includes collecting payroll and benefits administration paperwork, such as W-4s, I-9s, direct deposit forms, and any other documents your company needs. In addition, you may prepare new hire materials, such as orientation packets or company handbooks outlining company policies.
Perhaps the most known role of HR is keeping track of documents, including employee records related to attendance, vacations, medical leave, and other employee data. This helps demonstrate that the company complies with labor regulations about working hours and conditions. It also helps ensure that employees receive the correct salary and benefits based on their employment status, hours worked, and pay rates.
Compensation and benefits work involves making sure your company takes care of your employees by offering competitive salaries and a satisfactory benefits package. Your job as an HR professional may include ensuring employees receive the correct salary and access the benefits they want. You may process payroll or work with an accounting department or third-party company that distributes paychecks.
If you have a management position with human resources, you may analyze the benefits offered by competing companies in your geographical area and industry. Your work can help managers make compensation decisions for current and future employees. When you make changes, you may administer new company policies on benefits, such as health insurance or retirement plans.
Training and development ensure that employees are updated on their skills and improve their job performance. Whether you develop the training in-house or contract with another group, it’s essential to establish an inventory of what training and development opportunities are available within your company. This also can include outside sources that can provide the information and skills employees need.
When developing a training program, you’ll consider mandatory and voluntary opportunities. The law may require some training, such as sexual harassment education. Other training may be geared toward individual career goals or the company’s needs. Your ultimate goal is to ensure that all employees have access to the tools they need to succeed and become more valuable to the company.
Employee relations include everything a company does to create a positive working environment and facilitate positive employee relationships. This can consist of participating in conversations about employee policies like compensation, working conditions, and dispute resolution.
In HR roles, you must be a company culture ambassador. You may work with management to develop an organizational structure and culture that supports the company's strategic goals. You’ll also act as a liaison between employees and managers to ensure that appropriate communications exist between all parties.
As a human resources professional, you support employees by providing continuing education, training, and support for health and wellbeing. Adequate human resources are key to maintaining employee satisfaction and morale. The way HR supports employees may vary from one company to another. Here are some ways your HR department can provide support to employees.
As a human resources professional, you support employees by offering a career path within the company. Your department should offer clearly defined avenues for advancement, promotions, and transfers to other departments or divisions. This helps to ensure that employees stay with the company rather than seeking outside opportunities when they're ready for new challenges.
HR may oversee continuing education programs that benefit both the employer and employee. This may be professional development, tuition reimbursement for courses, or certifications. Giving employees opportunities to enhance their skill sets and industry knowledge can boost morale and incentivize workers to continue working for the company. Education assistance programs often work well as recruitment and retention tools.
You may work with department heads and managers as a human resource professional to improve their knowledge and skills. By training leaders in the company, you’ll help employees throughout the organization. Your training may focus on staff motivation, effective feedback, disciplinary issues, diversity, technical skills, and compliance with the law.
Your HR department will likely support employees by managing health plans, employee assistance programs, retirement planning, and disability benefits. These programs can help employees resolve conflicts and manage stress outside of the workplace that could otherwise interfere with their work. In some companies, these program benefits extend to the immediate family.
You also may assist managers with creating employee wellness programs that include fitness challenges, healthy eating guidelines, and stress reduction practices. Healthy employees tend to use fewer sick days, which affects the company's productivity. Some employers offer these on-site, while others collaborate with outside vendors to provide services.
Types of jobs in human resources range from administrative support roles and HR generalist positions to management and specialist jobs like benefits coordinator and labor relations specialist. Here are some typical jobs you can find in HR:
Benefits administrator: Assist new employees as they select benefits and current employees when they update their selection
Employee relations manager: Help leaders build relationships with employees, address employee concerns, and resolve disputes between employees and company leadership
Human resources assistant: Support HR management with administrative tasks like recording information, processing documents, and communicating with applicants
Human resources director: Supervise the HR department, oversee orientation and training programs, and monitor compliance with labor laws.
Human resources generalist: Manage or oversee HR operations in small companies, including hiring and onboarding new employees, overseeing compensation and benefits, and maintaining compliance
Human resources information system (HRIS) analyst: Manage and monitor technology used in the HR department
Labor relations specialist: Assist with the collective bargaining process, review data related to employee contracts, and oversee the grievance process
Recruiter: Find qualified candidates to fill open positions
Training and development specialist: Develop and conduct training programs for employees
The size of your company can dictate how many people will be involved in each HR specialism. In large companies, entire teams may focus on one aspect of human resources, with each team member having specific skills and knowledge in their field. If you work in a smaller company, you’ll find more general roles and HR professionals do a little bit of everything.
To work in human resources, you need a combination of workplace and technical skills, such as communication and talent management systems. The specific skills you need may vary depending on the job you want, but the following list gives you an idea of the types of skills valued in HR jobs.
Active listening: You will likely find it helpful to practice active listening skills, as it can help you pay attention to important details and shows employees that you value their time and perspective.
Analysis: HR professionals often use data to evaluate recruiting methods and employee performance. Being able to interpret this data can be helpful.
Administrative: Good organization, data entry and analysis skills, and capacity to juggle multiple tasks simultaneously can be helpful in HR jobs.
Communication: In an HR role, you spend a considerable amount of time talking to people in interviews, training sessions, and conversations. You also will likely write many emails, handbooks, and other documents.
Training: You may need to develop and deliver training sessions for adults, including new and existing employees.
Technical skills: The specific technical skills you need depend on the company you work for, but being able to use a computer and operate word processing documents, spreadsheets, and databases tend to be helpful in most companies.
Whether new to the human resources department or looking for ways to expand your skills, explore the learning opportunities available on Coursera. Consider general HR courses like Preparing to Manage Human Resources from the University of Minnesota and Human Resource Management: HR for People Managers offered by the University of Minnesota.
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